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[email protected] FAQ

[email protected] FAQ v.1.30 for newsgroups alt.sci.seti , sci.astro.seti , alt.info-science.seti

Plain text version: http://home9.inet.tele.dk/peteralf/FAQ.txt

Please feel free to contact me in order to improve our FAQ. All Corrections and relevant FAQ’s will be applied. Also you will be listed as Coauthor, if you supply new FAQ’s. I will try to keep anything added to this FAQ as much in the state they were as possible.

 


Author: Peter Alfredsen [email protected]

HTML version: Walter Novacek [email protected]

Co-author:Dale Williamson [email protected]

Contributors:[email protected] team, Frank J. Perricone, M. Stilgar, Arthur Schain, Ed H, Neil Rieck, Thomas Martin, Malcolm Pack, James Birchfield, Roelof Engelbrecht, Allan Cleveland, Chris Johnson, Carl Sagan, Erik J. Korpela, Terry Lee, Sqiz, David Woolley, Jan Knutar, Peter van der Kort, David Schilling, Alfred Das

— Legal Chit-chat —
This document is subject to copyright. It may be copied, distributed, and otherwise electronically transferred, if you agree to the following terms:

  1. If made publicly available, it must be updated regularly, hereby meaning every 2-3 months.
  2. You agree, if making publicly available this document, or parts hereof, to link to the two official FAQ-pages: http://bitenbyte.com/seti/setifaq.html
    http://home9.inet.tele.dk/peteralf/FAQ.txt
  3. It would be preferred, if you want to copy this FAQ, that you notify the author.

FAQ Contents

 

1 About [email protected]

1.1 What is [email protected]?
1.2 Background

1.2.1 The Drake Equation
1.2.2 The Fermi paradox
1.2.3 How far away could we detect radio transmissions?
1.2.4 The quest for EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE
1.2.5 Setup of the [email protected] project
1.2.6 What is a Gaussian?
1.2.7 Analysis of the end data from the [email protected] project

1.3 The history and customs of alt.sci.seti and sci.astro

1.3.1 Charter for alt.sci.seti
1.3.2 Charter for sci.astro.seti
1.3.3 Naming convention
1.3.4 .sig Convention
1.3.5 Offtopic (OT) posts convention
1.3.6 Olli’s and the sort(Cracking [email protected])
1.3.7 I’ve seen people talking or mentioning something about the top-10 or top-10 posters, what’s that?

1.4 What will happen if an extraterrestrial signal is detected?
1.5 How is data collected from the telescope and transmitted to other machines for analysis?
1.6 What if my computer finds a signal — how will I know?
1.7 How can I hear the signal?
1.8 Is there something in it for me?

2 Problems and questions concerning [email protected]

2.1 Speed improvements

2.1.1 What’s the fastest computer to use for this project?
2.1.2 Can i make it run any faster?
2.1.3 Can i run the [email protected] text-client on Win95?
2.1.4 Will [email protected] run faster with more RAM (e.g., 256 MB instead of 128 MB)?
2.1.5 How fast COULD your system be?

2.2 I’m using a proxy server, and i can’t connect – what do i do?
2.3 I had a work unit get returned after only 5 minutes. What’s wrong?
2.4 I heard I was getting the same work unit as everyone else. Is the program wasting my time?
2.5 My computer wanted to upload to the [email protected] server but said it couldn’t connect or reported error 10065. Are they still there?
2.6 What if someone fakes a result to make it seem like they found a signal?
2.7 [email protected] keeps getting a ‘file opened in state.txt’ error. What can I do?
2.8 [email protected] keeps getting a ‘Bad Header’ error. What can I do?
2.9 Suddenly, without warning my system crashes – what should i do?
2.10 I can’t see the new WU’s i’ve processed in the status area. Have they been registered at [email protected]?
2.11 I want to run the text-client as a service in NT – how do i do that?
2.12 Can i run the client invisibly on Win95/98?
2.13 Sometimes the size of the workunit.txt file differs in size. Sometimes it’s 340, sometimes 341, and yet other times 351. Is there something wrong?
2.14 I don’t have a permanent Internet connection, and have to pay for all my phone calls and net usage. Can I run [email protected] without going bankrupt?
2.15 I already run the distributed.net RC5-64 client. Can I run [email protected] as well, or do I have to choose which project to support?
2.16 What happened to the gaussian information display in the new Mac and Windows clients? Are the clients still looking for gaussians?
2.17 Can I run [email protected] 24/7 if I don’t have a permanent Internet connection?
2.18 Is this bad for my processor, or my harddrive?
2.19 Does it use up a lot of electricity? Is this costing me money, or doing damage to the environment?
2.20 How can I keep appraised of what’s going on lately?

3 Third Party Software

3.1 JSETITracker

3.1.1 Programmers comments

3.2 [email protected]

3.2.1 Programmers comments
3.2.2 [email protected] Installation
3.2.3 [email protected] Startup

3.3 SETI Spy

3.3.1 Programmers comments
3.3.2 Processing Efficiency

3.4 SETIWatch

3.4.1 What is SETIWatch?
3.4.2 Some Background
3.4.3 Where can i get it?
3.4.4 How to Install SETIWatch

3.5 SETIlog

3.5.1 What is SETILog?
3.5.2 How does SETILog work?
3.5.3 RunSETI.bat
3.5.4 Where can i get it?
3.5.5 How to Install SETILog

3.6 SetiTEAM

3.6.1 Description

3.7 SETIBuf

3.7.1 Legal notice and stuff
3.7.2 General Description
3.7.3 Where can I get it?

4 Homepages

4.1 Homepages concerning [email protected]

4.1.1 [email protected] home
4.1.2 SETIweb
4.1.3 SETIforum
4.1.4 SETI @ SixDegrees
4.1.5 [email protected] Speedup Tips
4.1.6 Derived statistics for [email protected] @ Rovingmouse
4.1.7 SETI STATION
4.1.8 SETI: The Drake Equation
4.1.9 Sci.astro FAQ about SETI

4.2 SETI utilities

4.2.1 SETIwatch & SETIlog
4.2.3 [email protected]
4.2.4 SETISPY
4.2.5 JSETITracker
4.2.6 SetiTEAM Homepage

5 Acknowledgements

5.1 Sci.astro FAQ

 

1 About [email protected]

1.1 What is SETI/[email protected]?

If we assume that our alien neighbors are trying to contact us, we should be looking for them. There are currently several programs that are now looking for the evidence of life elsewhere in the cosmos. Collectively, these programs are called SETI (the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.) [email protected] is a scientific experiment that harnesses the power of hundreds of thousands of Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). You can participate by running a free program that downloads and analyzes radio telescope data. There’s a small but captivating possibility that your computer will detect the faint murmur of a civilization beyond Earth.

1.2 Background

1.2.1 The Drake Equation

<This is only one possible guess at, how the Drake Equation may be. If you want to guess for yourself, look under 4.1.8 SETI: The Drake Equation>

Our sun is only a single star in a collection of over 400 billion we call the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way is only 1 of billions of galaxies in the universe. Seems like there should be lots of life out there! Can we make an initial estimate? The first to do so was the astronomer Frank Drake. He came up with a simple equation, now called the Drake Equation, that maps out the possibilities. The equation is quite easy to understand, so don’t tune out, even if arithmetic isn’t your strong suit! Here it is:

N = R * f(p) * n(e) * f(l) * f(i) * f(c) * L

“N” here represents the number of communicating civilizations in our Milky Way galaxy. This number depends on several factors. “R” is the rate of “suitable” star formation in the galaxy. “f(p)” is the fraction of stars that have planets. “n(e)” is the number of these planets around any star within the suitable ecosphere of the star. An “ecosphere” is a shell that surrounds a star within which the conditions are suitable for life to form. Too close and it’s too hot; too far and it’s too cold. “f(l)” is the fraction of those planets within the ecosphere on which life actually evolves. “f(i)” is the fraction of those planets on which intelligent life evolves. “f(c)” is the fraction of those planets where intelligent life develops a technology and attempts communication. The last factor, “L,” is the length of time that an intelligent, communicating civilization lasts. Let’s briefly look at each of these factors separately and try to put some reasonable numbers to them.
Although the rate of suitable star formation was undoubtedly much higher when our galaxy formed, one can still see where stars are being born today.
In the last couple of years, several teams of astronomers have announced the discovery of planets surrounding nearby stars. This exciting discovery increases the likelihood of other planets around many stars. Let’s estimate conservatively that one-half of the stars form planetary systems; the other half form binary star systems, so

f(p) = 0.5.

The n(e) factor is a little tricky. Small stars are cool and red. Planets would have to orbit very close to be in the ecosphere. Also, this ecosphere would be very narrow; like the skin on an orange. Not much room for planets. Planets that orbit very close to their parent star are often tidally locked and present one face to the star at all times. The atmosphere of such a planet would freeze on the cool side that faces away from the star; this does not promote life. On the other hand, huge hot blue stars have a farther and wider ecosphere. Of course, judging from our solar system, planets are spaced further apart the farther they are from the star, so the wider ecosphere is cancelled by this effect. These larger stars also burn their fuel faster and don’t last very long. They are usually so short-lived that life does not even get a chance to start before the star goes nova or supernova and destroys everything in the system. In our solar system, with our average-sized yellow sun, we have two (Earth and Mars) or maybe three (Venus) planets within the ecosphere. A conservative guess for the number of planets within the “life zone” or ecosphere is one.

n(e) = 1.
The next factor, f(l), is where things become a little sticky. The problem is that we only have a few examples of planets where conditions are right for life to evolve. As stated above, Venus, Earth, and Mars all could have had, at one time, proper conditions. We know life evolved on Earth, and there is now tantalizing evidence for primitive life existing on Mars billions of years ago. A conservative guess for this number is 0.2, or one in five planets with proper conditions will evolve life.

f(l) = 0.2.

How many of these planets will evolve intelligent life? Tough question, but if we really believe the evidence for natural selection and survival of the fittest, most scientists would put this number at 100 percent — that intelligent life is a natural outcome of evolution. Of course, here we have only one example, earth.

f(i) = 1.

How many of these intelligent species will develop technology and use it to communicate? If we look at the earth, we see humans doing it, but we also see whales and dolphins, who may also possess a moderate level of intelligence but never developed technology. We’ll set this number to 0.5 as a first guess.

f(c) = 0.5.
Now we get to the hardest number to determine. “L” is the number of years that a technologically adept and communicative civilization lasts. We’ve only been in this phase of our evolution for about 50 years. Do advanced civilizations blow themselves up after discovering the technology to do so? Or do they get together and solve their problems before this happens? For now, let’s not assign a number to L. Let’s plug in the other numbers and see what we get.

N = R * f(p) * n(e) * f(l) * f(i) * f(c) * L

N = 20 * 0.5 * 1 * 0.2 * 1 * 0.5 * L

Do advanced civilizations use their technology to solve their problems or do they destroy themselves? On earth we’ve survived the first 50 years. Multiplying all the numbers gives us N = L. In other words, the number of intelligent communicating civilizations in the galaxy equals the number of years such a civilization lasts! The figure about which we know the least bears a great significance in our calculations. Most scientists hope that if a civilization can overcome its initial tendency to destroy itself with its own technology, then that civilization is likely to last for a very long time. Let’s hope those scientists are right. In any case, there should be at least 50 (the number of years WE’VE been around communicating) and if a communicative civilization lasts for millions of years, there may possibly be millions of civilizations we can look for.

1.2.2 The Fermi paradox

By John Pike and Steve Willner

One of the problems that the Drake Equation produces is that if you take reasonable (some would say optimistic) numbers for everything up to the average duration of technological civilizations, then you are left with three possibilities:

  1. If such civilizations last a long time, “They” should be _here_ (leading either the the Flying Saucer hypothesis—they are here and we are seeing them, or the Zoo Hypothesis—they are here and are hiding in obedience to the Prime Directive, which they observe with far greater fiqdelity than Captain Kirk could ever muster). -or-
  2. If such civilizations last a long time, and “They” are not “here” then it becomes necessary to explain why each and every technological civilization has consistently chosen not to build starships. The first civilization to build starships would spread across the entire Galaxy on a timescale that is short relative to the age of the Galaxy. Perhaps they lose interest in space flight and building starships because they are spending all their time surfing the net. (Think about it—the whole point of space flight is the proposition that there are privileged spatial locations, and the whole point of the net is that physical location is more or less irrelevant.) -or-
  3. Such civilizations do not last a long time, and blow themselves up or otherwise fall apart pretty quickly (… film at 11).

Thus the Drake Equation produces what is called the Fermi Paradox (i.e., “Where are They?”), in that the implications of #3 and #2 are not terribly encouraging to some folks, but the two flavors of #1 are kinda hard to come to grips with.

An alternate version of 2 is that interstellar travel is far more difficult than we think it is. Right now, it doesn’t seem much beyond the boundaries of current technology to launch “generation ships,” which amount to an O’Neill colony plus propulsion and power systems. An alternative is robot probes with artificial intelligence; these don’t seem so difficult either. The Milky Way galaxy is well under 10^5 light years in diameter and over 10^9 years old, so even travel beginning fairly recently in Galactic history and proceeding well under the speed of light ought to have filled the Galaxy by now. (Travel very near the speed of light still seems very hard, but such high speed isn’t necessary to fill the Galaxy with life.) The paradox, then, is that we don’t observe evidence of anybody besides us.

1.2.3 How far away could we detect radio transmissions?

By Al Aburto

Representative results are presented in Tables 1 and 2. The short answer is

  1. Detection of broadband signals from Earth such as AM radio, FM radio, and television picture and sound would be extremely difficult even at a fraction of a Light-Year distant from the Sun. For example, a TV picture having 5 MHz of bandwidth and 5 MWatts of power could not be detected beyond 0.01 Light-Years of the Sun even with a radio telescope with 100 times the sensitivity of the 305 meter diameter Arecibo telescope.
  2. Detection of narrowband signals is more resonable out to thousands of Light-Years distance from the Sun depending on the transmitter’s EIRP and the receiving antenna size.
  3. Instruments such as the Arecibo radio telescope could detect narrowband signals originating thousands of Light-Years from the Sun.
  4. A well designed 12 ft diameter amateur radio telescope could detect narrowband signals from 30 to 300 Light-Years distance assuming the EIRP of the transmitter is in the terawatt range.

What follows is a basic example for the estimation of radio and microwave detection ranges of interest to SETI. Minimum signal processing is assumed. For example an FFT can be used in the narrowband case and a bandpass filter in the broadband case (with center frequency at the right place of course). In addition it is assumed that the bandwidth of the receiver (Br) is constrained such that it is greater than or equal to the bandwidth of the transmitted signal (Bt) (that is, Br >= Bt). Assume a power Pt (watts) in bandwidth Bt (Hz) radiated isotropically. At a distance of R (meters), this power will be uniformly distributed (reduced) over a sphere of area: 4 * pi * R^2. The amount of this power received by an antenna of effective area Aer with bandwidth Br(Hz), where Br >= Bt, is therefore:

Pr = Aer * (Pt / (4 * pi * R^2))

If the transmitting antenna is directive (that is, most of the available isotropic power is concentrated into a narrow beam) with power gain Gt in the desired direction then:

Pr = Aer * ((Pt * Gt) / (4 * pi * R^2))

The transmit antenna gain, Gt, is given by the following expression:

Gt = Aet * (4 * pi / (w^2)), where

Aet = effective area of the transmitting antenna (m^2), and w = wavelength (m) the antenna is tuned to. f = c / w, where f is the frequency and c is the speed of light.

c = 2.99793E+08 (m/sec)
pi = 3.141592654

For a parabolic “dish” transmit or receive antenna:

Aer = nr * pi * dr^2 / 4, and

Aet = nt * pi * dt^2 / 4, where
nt = efficiency of the transmit antenna
nr = efficiency of the receive antenna
dt = diameter (m) of the transmit “dish” antenna.
dr = diameter (m) of the receive “dish” antenna.
Similarly, the receiver gain Gr is given by:

Gr = Aer * (4 * pi / (w^2)),

but it is not used explicitly in the range equation. Only the effective area (Aer) intercepting the radiated energy at range R is required.

The Nyquist noise, Pn, is given by:

Pn = k * Tsys * Br, where

k = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38054E-23 (joule/kelvin)

Tsys = is the system temperature (kelvins), and Br = the receiver bandwidth (hertz).

The signal-to-noise ratio, snr, is thus given by:

snr = Pr / Pn.

If we average the output for a time t, in order to reduce the variance of the noise, then one can improve the snr by a factor of sqrt(Br * t). Thus:

snr = Pr * sqrt(Br * t) / Pn.

The factor Br*t is called the “time bandwidth product” of the receive processing in this case, which we’ll designate as:

twp = Br * t.

We’ll designate the integration or averaging gain as:

twc = sqrt(twp).

Integration of the data (which means: twp = Br * t > 1, or t > (1 / Br) ) makes sense for unmodulated “CW” signals that are relatively stable over time in a relatively stationary (steady) noise field. On the other hand, integration of the data does not make sense for time-varying signals since this would distroy the information content of the signal. Thus for a modulated signal twp = Br * t = 1 is appropriate.

In any case the snr can be rewritten as:

snr = (Pt * Gt) * Aer * twc / (4 * pi * R^2 * Br * k * Tsys)

Pt * Gt is called the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) in the transmitted signal of bandwidth Bt. So:

EIRP = Pt * Gt, and

snr = EIRP * Aer * twc / (4 * pi * R^2 * Br * k * Tsys)

This is a basic equation that one can use to estimate SETI detection ranges.

##############################################################

If Rl is the number of meters in a Light-Year
(9.46055E+15 (m/LY))
then the detection range in Light-Years is given by:
R = sqrt[ EIRP * Aer * twc / (4 * pi * snr * Br * k * Tsys) ] / Rl
If we wanted the range in Astronomical Units then replace Rl with Ra = 1.496E+11 (m/AU).

##############################################################

Note that for maximum detection range (R) one would want the transmit power (EIRP), the area of the receive antenna (Aer), and the time bandwidth product (twp) to be as big as possible. In addition one would want the snr, the receiver bandwidth (Br), and thus transmit signal bandwidth (Bt), and the receive system temperature (Tsys) to be as small as possible.

Now we are in a position to carry out some simple estimates of detection range. These are shown in Table 1 for a variety of radio transmitters. We’ll assume the receiver is a parabolic type (“dish”) antenna, similar to Arecibo, with diameter dr = 305m and anefficiency of 70% (nr = 0.7). We’ll also assume snr = 3 is required for detection and that twp = Br * Tr = 1. Note that with more refined signal processing, the detection ranges could perhaps be increased by a factor of 2 to 3 over those shown in the table. An “educated” guess for some of the parameter values, Tsys in particular, was taken as indicated by the question marks in the table. As a reference note that Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the Sun and Pluto 39.4 AU, while the nearest star to the Sun is 4.3 LY away. Also note that signal attenuation due to the Earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere have been ignored. AM radio for example, from Earth, is trapped within the ionosphere.

The receive antenna area, Aer, is thus:

Aer = nr * pi * dr^2 / 4 = 51,143.2 m^2

Hence the detection range (Light Years) becomes:

R = 1.0478E-03 * sqrt[ EIRP / (Br * Tsys) ].

Table 1 Detection ranges of various EM emissions from Earth and the Pioneer spacecraft assuming a 305 meter diameter parabolic (“dish”) receive antenna, similar to the Arecibo radio telescope. Assuming snr = 3, twp = Br * Tr = 1, nr = 0.7, and dr = 305 meters.

	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  Source       | Frequency    | Bandwidth | Tsys   | EIRP   | Detection |
	               | Range        |    (Br)   |(Kelvin)|        | Range (R) |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  AM Radio     | 530-1605 kHz |  10   kHz | 300  ? | 100 KW |     12 AU |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  FM Radio     |  88-108  MHz | 150   kHz | 100  ? |   5 MW |     38 AU |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  UHF TV       | 470-806  MHz |   6   MHz |  50  ? |   5 MW |      9 AU |
	  Picture      |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  UHF TV       | 470-806  MHz |   0.1  Hz |  50  ? |   5 MW |    1.0 LY |
	  Carrier      |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  WSR-88D      |   2.8    GHz |  0.63 MHz |  20    |  32 GW |   0.05 LY |
	  Weather Radar|              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  Arecibo      |   2.380  GHz |  0.01  Hz |  20    |  22 TW | 10,990 LY |
	  S-Band (CW)  |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  Arecibo      |   2.380  GHz |  0.01  Hz |  20    |   1 TW |  2,343 LY |
	  S-Band (CW)  |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  Arecibo      |   2.380  GHz |  0.01  Hz |  20    |   1 GW |     74 LY |
	  S-Band (CW)  |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+
	  Pioneer 10   |   2.295  GHz |  1.0   Hz |  20    | 1.6 kW |    593 AU |
	  Carrier      |              |           |        |        |           |
	  -------------+--------------+-----------+--------+--------+-----------+

It should be apparent then from these results that the detection of AM radio, FM radio, or TV pictures much beyond the orbit of Pluto will be extremely difficult even for an Arecibo like 305 meter diameter Radio Telescope! Even a 3000 meter diameter Radio Telescope could not detect the “I Love Lucy” TV show (re-runs) at a distance of 0.01 Light-Years! It is only the narrowband high intensity emissions from Earth (narrowband radar generally) that will be detectable at significant ranges (greater than 1 LY). Perhaps they’ll show up very much like the narrowband, short duration, and non-repeating, signals observed by our SETI telescopes. Perhaps we should document all these “non-repeating” detections very carefully to see if any long term spatial detection patterns show up. Another question to consider is what an Amateur SETI radio telescope might achieve in terms of detection ranges using narrowband FFT processing. Detection ranges (LY) are given in Table 2 assuming a 12 ft (3.6576 m) dish antenna operating at 1.420 GHz, for various FFT binwidths (Br), Tsys, snr, time bandwidth products (twp = Br*t), and EIRP values. It appears from the table that effective amateur SETI explorations can be conducted out beyond approximately 30 Light-years provided the processing bandwidth is near the minimum (approximately 0.01 Hz), the system temperature is minimal (20 to 50 Degrees Kelvin), and the EIRP of the source (transmitter) is greater thanapproximately 25 terawatts.
Table 2 Detection ranges (LY) for a 12 foot diameter amateur

radio telescope SETI system, operating at 1.420 GHz.

	                                 |             EIRP              |
	                                 +-------+--------+------+-------+
	                                 | 100TW |  25TW  |  1TW | 100GW |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	   Br  | Br*t  |   Tsys   | snr  |        Detection Range        |
	  (Hz) |       | (kelvin) |      |             (LY)              |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   2   |    20    |   3  |  334  |   168  |  33  |  11   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   1   |    20    |   3  |  281  |   141  |  28  |   9   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   2   |    50    |   3  |  211  |   106  |  21  |   7   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   1   |    50    |   3  |  178  |    89  |  18  |   6   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.05 |   2   |    20    |   3  |  150  |    75  |  15  |   5   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.05 |   1   |    20    |   3  |  126  |    63  |  13  |   4   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   1   |    20    |  16  |  122  |    61  |  12  |   4   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.1  |  20   |    50    |   3  |  119  |    59  |  12  |   4   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.01 |   1   |    50    |  16  |   77  |    39  |   8  |   2   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  1.0  | 200   |    50    |   3  |   67  |    33  |   7  |   2   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+
	  0.05 |   1   |    50    |  16  |   34  |    17  |   3  |   1   |
	-------+-------+----------+------+-------+--------+------+-------+

1.2.4 The quest for EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE

By Carl Sagan

Cosmic Search Magazine Vol. 1 No. 2 May, 1978

Through all of our history we have pondered the stars and mused whether mankind is unique or if, somewhere else out there in the dark of night sky, there are other beings who contemplate and wonder as we do – fellow thinkers in the cosmos. Such beings might view themselves and the universe differently. Somewhere else there might exist exotic biologies, technologies and societies. What a splendid perspective contact with a profoundly different civilization might provide! In a cosmic setting vast and old beyond ordinary human understanding we are a little lonely, and we ponder the ultimate significance, if any, of our tiny but exquisite blue planet, the Earth. The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is the search for a generally acceptable cosmic context for the human species. In the deepest sense the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is a search for ourselves.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

There are some who look on our global problems here on Earth – at our vast national antagonisms, our nuclear arsenals, our growing populations, the disparity between the poor and the affluent, shortages of food and resources, and our inadvertent alterations of the natural environment of our planet – and conclude that we live in a system which has suddenly become unstable, a system which is destined soon to collapse. There are others who believe that our problems are soluble, that humanity is still in its childhood, that one day soon we will grow up. The existence of a single message from space will show that it is possible to live through technological adolescence: the civilization transmitting the message, after all, has survived. Such knowledge, it seems to me, might be worth a great price.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

There will surely be differences among civilizations which cannot be glimpsed until information is available about the evolution of many civilizations. Because of our isolation from the rest of the cosmos, we have information on the evolution of only one civilization – our own. And the most important aspect of that information, the future, remains closed to us. Perhaps it is not likely, but it is certainly possible that the future of human civilization depends on the receipt and decoding of interstellar messages…It is difficult to think of another enterprise within our capability and at relatively modest cost which holds as much promise for the future of humanity.

1.2.5 Setup of the [email protected] project

This was taken from a.s.s, and written by Erik J. Korpela, responding to a post by <[email protected]>

The Ultra 450 (4 cpu) is the science database server which stores results, does analysis, and also runs a splitter process.

One Ultra 10 is the user database server which stores user information.

One Ultra 10 workstation is the server machine which handles connections and directs them to the appropriate database This machine also has storage for the workunits themselves.

One Ultra 10 is a full time splitter

Two Ultra 10s (one fast and one slow) are development workstations and an after hours splitters.

One slow Ultra 10 is the web server and Dan’s workstation. (Dan Wertheimer)

One Sparcstation 10 used to be a splitter (that’s the old really slow one) and is used as a development workstation.

1.2.6 What is a Gaussian?

A gaussian is a mathematical function, mostly commonly describing the sort of distribution of values you get around the nominal value of some property or measurement as a result of measurement (and production errors). I would expect the maximum speeds of CPU chips to show this sort of pattern.

It is often described as a bell curve, as it starts off rising slowly, then accelerates before starting to level off and come down in a mirror image of its rise, something like the cross section of a church bell.

1.2.7 Analysis of the end data from the [email protected] project

First thing, they’ll be run through some RFI (Radio Frequency Interference for the newbies out there) rejection routines. There are a few different algorithms used. If a signal at the same frequency, but from a different place on the sky comes in within a few minutes, it’s likely to be RFI. There are certain frequencies where continuous RFI is received, that will also be rejected. If a signal comes in at a chirp rate of zero, it’s also likely to be RFI (extraterrestial signals should show a chirp signature due to the rotation of the earth and/or the rotaion of the ET’s planet.) RFI rejection will probably eliminate the vast majority of the candidates (>99.99%).

From there, the probablility that the candidate signals are just a random peak in the noise in the reciever, will be calculated. Then there’ll be created a priority list of candidates based upon this probability, the signal strength, frequency width, goodness of gaussian fit, etc and pointed observations of the best candidates will be proposed.

Somewhere in this chain, there’ll also be looked for repeaters. Signals that show up at the same place in the sky at about the same frequency, but widely separated in time. Repeaters will likely get bumped to the top of the priority list.

Another thing that will be looked for is signals with decent gaussian fits that show up at different frequencies, but at the same time. That might boost a candidates’ priority as well.

1.3 The history and customs of alt.sci.seti and sci.astro

1.3.1 Charter for alt.sci.seti

The original documents can be found here:

The first post:

http://x31.deja.com/[ST_rn=ap]/getdoc.xp?AN=484562021&CONTEXT=938880213.74252397&hitnum=3
The control message, that created the group:

http://x31.deja.com/[ST_rn=ap]/getdoc.xp?AN=484419771&CONTEXT=938880213.74252397&hitnum=2

This was posted as the first post ever in alt.sci.seti on June 1st by Chris:
Welcome to alt.sci.seti! This group will probably be a little barren at first until it begins to propagate more thoroughly Why not post a message and get things rolling?

Hopefully someone will one day create a FAQ for this newsgroup, but until then here’s the charter…
Charter:

Discussion about the SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) project and the search for extra terrestrial life in general.

Also, discussion of the “[email protected]” project which allows individuals to utilize their computer’s idle time to assist SETI in processing its overwhelming amount of recorded data.

Should discussion about the [email protected] project and the SETI project in general begin to crowd eachother, a second newsgroup devoted solely to [email protected] will be created with the name alt.sci.seti.at-home leaving alt.sci.seti for discussion of the SETI project.

Binaries are not permitted and should instead be posted to the appropriate binary newsgroup or FTP site where they may be accessed.

Justification:

The SETI project has been going on for some years now and has amassed a great deal of interest. A quick search on DejaNews will show that there are thousands of posts regarding SETI, yet there is no currently available newsgroup to keep these discussions from getting lost in numerous other non-specific forums. alt.sci.seti will address this lacking.

It will also provide a place for the enormous and growing number of people who have begun to participate in the [email protected] project to discuss problems and solutions in assisting SETI to process all of its raw data. While the [email protected] project is expected to end around 2001 or so, it is likely that SETI will seek to call upon the public again in a similar way. This newsgroup will therefore continue to be timely and useful.

This newsgroup was proposed, discussed, and approved in alt.config at the end of May 99.

Created 01 Jun 99

1.3.2 Charter for sci.astro.seti

RATIONALE: sci.astro.seti

The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is the scientific discipline of searching for electromagnetic evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations. SETI has received a lot of attention recently due to the [email protected] project. The [email protected] project has shown that at least several hundred thousand individuals are willing to dedicate computer resources to the search for alien radio signals. This has brought an increase in the amount of discussion of SETI and the possibilities of extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI). Which has increased the number of posts about SETI in related newsgroups (sci.astro, etc.) by a large amount.

The [email protected] project is a distributed computing project which harnesses the computing power of hundreds of thousands of Internet connected computers to search for radio evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations. It is the newest and most public SETI project to date. Currently it has attracted almost a million people willing to donate computer time to this search. However, [email protected] is not the only SETI project, nor will it be the last new one. Several SETI projects are on the drawing board (1HT, etc.) and many of them will require as much or more computing power as the [email protected] project uses currently. It would be surprising if none of these new SETI programs use the distributed computing model that has allowed [email protected] to harness computing power equivalent to multi-million dollar super-computers for very low costs.

This newsgroup will serve as a forum for discussion of SETI in general, and any SETI projects in specific. This includes discussion of [email protected], both it’s scientific aspects, as well as the use, configuration, and troubleshooting of the [email protected] client software and any similar software by future SETI projects. Additionally, it will serve as a place to discuss the technical specifics of all current and future SETI projects, and as a place for teachers who are developing curricula around SETI projects (such as [email protected]).

CHARTER: sci.astro.seti

This group will be unmoderated and distributed worldwide. This newsgroup is intended for the discussion of the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence. Appropriate topics for discussion include the following:

  1. Discussion of SETI projects (such as SERINDIP, Phoenix, [email protected], BETA, ARGUS, etc.)
  2. Installation and configuration of the [email protected] client or other SETI projects using distributed computing.
  3. Trouble shooting the use of the SETI client programs.
  4. The possibilities of Alien life (Drake equation, planetary abundance and its relavance to SETI, etc.)
  5. Discussion of statistical results for SETI projects.
  6. The potential content of alien messages and how to decode them, as well as any messages we (humans) have / will / could send into space that are intended for ETI’s (such as the Voyager record, the Arecibo message to M13, the Encounter 2001 project, etc.)
  7. Potential alien technology in the context of detection / communication by / with humans (using visible light lasers instead of radio, for example).
  8. Discussion of school curricula built around a SETI program

Inappropriate posts include:

  1. Commercial advertisements of any kind, including those for items related to SETI or any SETI project.
  2. Binaries, with the exception of cryptographic signatures.
  3. Discussions concerning UFOs, “alien abductions”, etc, which should take place in other groups.

1.3.3 Naming convention

When referring to your machine(s)in the SETI newsgroups, when discussing and comparing machine speeds use the following naming conventions for ease of use:

<your name> machine1/machine2/etc

For windows machines you could do something like this: 450-NT/266-W98. Or if you’ve got 3 W95 machines at 100, 166 and 450 Mhz you could total the Mhz like : <your name> 716/3-W95 or if you run multiple platforms, use: For 1 450Mhz, 1 500, 2 300 and 1 100: <your name> 1650/5-W95/W98/Linux.

The latter two should only be used when comparing gross machine output, and the first when comparing two machines’ speed.

If you run some exotic platform you could mention it like 120PA-risc HP9000.

1.3.4 .sig Convention

When reading the SETI newsgroups, you will find, that many use a * or # in their signatures. This has been an informal convention, that has spread and is now used widely. The newest .sig convention is as follows:

The following notation is a way of expressing your personal or a group’s contribution to the [email protected] program.

PRECISION NOTE:

These formats imply a certain range. 2.3* would for instance mean the interval of 230-239, whereas 2* would mean 200-299. The same goes for the symbolic notation. For instance ** would mean the interval of 200-299. More decimals added will imply greater accuracy for FORMAT 1 and more characters added would do the same for FORMAT 2.

FORMAT 1 – the preferred format:

[email protected]

Where “d” is a digit and “s” one or a combination of the following symbols:

!=10
*=100
#=1000
!#=10000 (ten thousand)
*#=100000 (hundred thousand)
##=1000000 (thousand thousand) etc…

Notes:

This table can be used for workunits and cpu-time alike. “@” only as a separator.

Examples:

       [email protected]!             (9wu/98hr)
       [email protected]*          (10wu/250hr)
       2.1#@3.4!#         (2100wu/34000hr)
       3.0*#@3.6##        (300000wu/3600000hr)

 

FORMAT 2 – a more symbolic notation:

Where the notation is composed of only symbols:

!=10
+=50
*=100
#=1000

Notes:

This table can be used for workunits and cpu-time alike. “@” only as a separator.

Example:

       ****[email protected]###          (450wu/3000hr).
       All symbols are counted for their value and finally added up.
       Here 100+100+100+100+50=450wu in 1000+1000+1000=3000hr.

It is preferred to sort the symbols. The greater first, then the smaller.
FORMAT 3 – only work units:

Format 1 or 2 where the cpu-time portion has been omitted.

Example:

2.1# (2100wu), ****+ (450wu).

DERIVED FORMATS – not preferred but no less understandable:

Mixed schemes may occur. E.g.: 4*[email protected]# (450wu/3000hr).

1.3.5 Offtopic (OT) posts convention

Anything posted offtopic in the SETI NG’s must be covered in the subject header by a prefix of “*OT*” then the subject. This points out the nature of the post and allows people the option to not download or remove all posts in that thread. This has been decided, as there has always been a very friendly tone in this NG, thus resulting in many personal comments and chit-chat.

OFFtopic:

Personal Chit-chat
Posts about how old you are, what you do, etc. Number of WU’s done. If polight, use your .sig file to brag (I do)
How fast your CPU is as compared to others. BINARIES – a big NO.
ANY commercial advertising.

1.3.6 Olli’s and the sort(Cracking [email protected])

Olli:

When you hear a reference to Olli in the group, this is a reference to a German who thought, that he could just do, as he wanted with the [email protected] program. What he did, essentially, was to decompile the code of the program, and release a new version of the program, unauthorized. This led to a big discussion in the alt.sci.seti NG, where he was eventually boo’ed out, because of his actions. Nothing has been heard from him lately.

Microsoft cracking the code:

Microsoft wrote their own version of SETI, highly optimized for certain Windows hardware. They wanted to turn in the fastest WU times, to prove how fast Windows is. The SETI people discovered MS’s cheating, and told them they must run the original SETI software, and threatened to dissolve the MS team, and said they would refuse results from any WU processed on a non-official SETI client. SETI had obvious concerns, that their algorithms might be programmed incorrectly.

[email protected]’s response:
(Erik J. Korpela)

Let me tell you some of the system aspects. The bottlenecks in [email protected] are currently (in order of size):

  1. The speed of the user database machine. This limits the number of connections we are able to handle per second. Sun has decided to give use another two Enterprise machine with two CPUs each, so this bottleneck will be going away soon. It will probably be another month before these machines arrive. The effect of a faster client on this bottleneck would be a higher rate of rejected connections and a lower system efficiency. -1 for Olli.
  2. The rate at which work units can be split. The arrival of the two Enterprize machines will allow two more splitters to be used, to this bottleneck will go away, too. The effect of a faster client on this is nothing. +0 for Olli.
  3. The fraction of time the [email protected] recorder is operating at Arecibo. We have no control over this parameter. When very RFI sensitive experiments are carried out at Arecibo, the [email protected] data recorder is shut off to prevent interference. For the first 10 months of the year, this fraction was about 1/2. The effect of a faster client on this is nothing. +0 for Olli.
  4. The speed of the data recorder at Arecibo. Again, there’s nothing to be done here but add another recorder working at different frequencies. That may be done at some point. The effect of a faster client on this is nothing. +0 for Olli.
  5. The speed of the [email protected] client. Note that this appears BELOW the previous four. Because of this, improving it doesn’t improve systems efficiency. Let’s assume #1 and #2 are solved and that we release a client that does the work in 1/4 the time. What is the response of the system to this optimization? Because data isn’t coming in any faster, any speed increase in the client just increases the number of times a work unit is processes. Increase the speed of the client by a factor of 4 and you’ve increased the processing redundancy by a factor of 4. So there’s no net processing efficiency increase. You’ve still got to store all the incoming results, so you’re actually reducing efficiency slightly. So this is actually a negative for Olli. -1 for Olli

The obvious conclusion is that Olli’s patch, while increasing the efficiency of a specific instance of the [email protected] client decreases the system efficiency. But Olli doesn’t care about that. There is a way around number 5, that is to add more processing capability to the client. This is what we were planning to do in the next release before we were so rudely interrupted.

1.3.7 I’ve seen people talking or mentioning something about the top-10 or top-10 posters, what’s that?

During a few weeks in late September 1999, Walter Novacek had a program running that collected the stats for this newgroup and posted them to this newsgroup. Among other things, he posted a list of the top 10 most active posters.

The top-10 only existed for a few weeks, since people started to compete with eacother. The amount of rubbish in the newsgroup grew to an unbareable level, so the top-10 was abolished.

1.4 What will happen if an extraterrestrial signal is detected?

A procedure has been agreed upon by SETI researchers around the world. First, other SETI researchers will independently verify the signal. If the signal is real and can’t be explained by man-made sources (satellites, reflections etc.)then press agencies and governments will be notified in a systematic way.

1.5 How is data collected from the telescope and transmitted to other machines for analysis?

Data is recorded on high density tapes at the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico, about one 35 Gbyte tape per day, then mailed to Berkeley, then divided into 0.25 Mbyte chunks which get sent from the [email protected] server over the internet to people around the world to analyze. Arecibo does not have a high bandwidth internet connection, so data must go by snail mail to Berkeley at first.

1.6 What sort of spectrum is currently being emitted by earth? Is that signal visible say 10 or 50 light years away? If SETI were on a planet say 10-50 light years from here and running this project there, would it be able to detect earth’s signal(assuming it was looking in our direction)?

Earth is polluting space with radio and television signals that might be detected by nearby advanced civilizations, but it would be difficult for such a civilization to discover these signals if they only have Earth’s current level of technology (eg: if they have an Arecibo like telescope and [email protected] like search).

Early TV shows like I Love Lucy and Ed Sullivan left the earth about 40 years ago, so have gone out 40 light years, reaching several thousand nearby stars. But these signals are relatively weak and [email protected] is not likely to detect the equivalent of Earth type TV transmitters, even on the nearest stars.

Earth’s strongest transmitters might be somewhat easier to detect, such as those emitted by military radars, or some radio telescopes. The Arecibo telescope transmits very powerful signals when it is used as a radar system to study planets, asteroids and the ionosphere. These radar signals are powerful enough to be detected 10,000 light years away by searches like [email protected], except for three big caveats:

  1. The Arecibo transmissions are in a very tight beam (they are not omnidirectional, like TV and military radar), so they only cover a very small part of the sky at once (about a millionth of the total sky). It’s is unlikely another civilization will be within one of these narrow beams.
  2. The Arecibo transmitter’s oldest signals left Earth about 30 years ago, so have only travelled 30 light years.
  3. [email protected] is not searching the band of frequencies that the Arecibo transmitters utilize (although the older SERENDIP III program did survey one of those bands).

1.7 What if my computer finds a signal — how will I know?

You won’t know, because your computer can’t find a signal all by itself. All it can find is bits of pattern that are worth further investigation and correlation with other bits of pattern in other work units. These will be flagged for the [email protected] staff to look into, and when they’ve verified it by various methods with scientific rigor, then they’ll make the announcement Don’t worry — they’ll give you co-credit.

1.8 How can I hear the signal?

The long answer: the data isn’t sound, it’s radio waves. You can make up an arbitrary set of rules to “map” radio waves into sound, but since you picked the rules, you really decide what you’re hearing, not the signal. As an analogy, imagine if you wanted to make a picture of the melody of a song was. You could decide (ala “Close Encounters” that a middle C turned into a teal light, and the G above middle C turned into a red light. Then any given melody becomes a set of colors. But when you’re done, the flashing lights you see tell you more about the particular rules of mapping you made up, than they did about the melody you started with.

The short answer: And even if you did, it’d just sound like white noise. So turn on some speakers without any signal hooked up to them, or tune your TV to a channel you don’t get, and listen do that. It’s about the same thing.

The [email protected] team has decoded one, and it’s located her:

http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/audio.html

Nothing but white noise.

1.9 Is there something in it for me?

No. Unless you count the chance to be the first one to make contact with “The little green men”

2 Problems and questions concerning [email protected]

2.1 Speed improvements

2.1.1 What’s the fastest computer to use for this project?

The computer you have. If it can run [email protected], running it will make more contribution than not running it. Even if you’re only doing half as many work units per month as the guy sitting next to you, you’re still doing more than you would if you weren’t doing them at all. If you want to see, what the fastest computer possible is, check the following sections.

2.1.2 Can i make it run any faster?

  1. Make sure you’ve got it set up to run continuously (a machine with at least a 200 MHz clock is desirable; if an Intel Platform then at least a BX or JX chip set is even better, otherwise the performance of the system might be untolerable)
  2. Make sure the graphical display window is never showing (run the window collapsed on the task bar)
  3. If running Windows 95/98/NT, make sure your screen saver is set up for “Blank Screen”. For some reason when screen saver is set to “[email protected]” with “continuous run” enabled the client seems to waste time fighting with itself. It can turn out a work unit in half the time by doing this.

If running on WindowsNT 4 then try running the client at a higherpriority. To do this you must do the following:4a. do a 3 finger salute (ctrl-alt-del) to bring up the “Windows NT Security” panel
4b. click the “task manager” tab
4c. locate the task called [email protected]
4d. right click on it
4e. clink task priority (low is the default)
4f. select either “medium” or “high” (but not “real time” or you might need to reboot in order to regain control of your machine)

(On windows 9X, you can use the shareware program taskinfo.
Start Taskinfo, right click [email protected], change priority, realtime.
Taskinfo can be found at http://www.iarsn.com)

  1. Use the text-client. Even though it’s not as much fun as the graphical, it does run faster. It will run on any win98/NT system(NT calls have been ported to win98.

2.1.3 Can i run the [email protected] text-client on Win95?

No. The text-client is designed for Win NT, but as the calls used in Win NT were ported to Win98, it can also run there.

2.1.4 Will [email protected] run faster with more RAM (e.g., 256 MB instead of 128 MB)?

[email protected] uses about 16 MB of RAM while it’s running. Beyond a certain point (typically 64MB, more if you run memory-itensive applications)more RAM won’t make it run faster.

2.1.5 How fast COULD your system be?

(This was taken from 3.3.2, and was initally written by Roelof Engelbrecht)

For benchmarking purposes I developed the following table of peak efficiencies from work unit speeds I measured and those reported on various news groups, bulletin boards, and web sites.

Processor Peak Efficiency

       (cycles / FLOP)
       AMD K6                              10.0
       AMD K6-2                            11.0
       AMD K6-III                          10.5
       AMD Athlon                           8.5
       Intel 80486DX2                      18.0
       Intel Pentium                       12.0
       Intel Pentium MMX                    9.5
       Intel Pentium Pro                    8.5
       Intel Celeron                        8.5
       Intel Pentium II/III                 8.0
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (512kB L2) 7.5
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (1MB L2)   5.5
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (2MB L2)   5.0
       Sun Enterprise 4000                  5.0
       Sun Ultra 60                         5.2
       PowerMac G3                          6.5
       PowerMac G4                          4.5

The peak efficiency of your processor depends on a number of factors, including:

  1. Floating Point Unit design

Since most of the processing is done on floating point numbers, a very efficient Floating Point Unit (FPU) is essential for good performance. The Intel Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II/III (Xeon), and AMD Athlon have pipelined FPUs which are more efficient than the non-pipelined FPUs of the other processors.

  1. Cache size and cache speed

The most time-consuming part of [email protected] is the FFT routine which accesses a data set slightly larger than 512kB. Performance is much improved if this data set fits entirely in the L2 cache of the processor, as is the case for the 1MB and 2MB Pentium II/III Xeons. In addition, the fast L2 cache like that of the Pentium II/III Xeon improves performance even more.

  1. Memory size and speed

[email protected] requires about 16 MB of memory. The quicker it can access this memory, the faster it will run. Low latency memory will reduce the access time and speed up processing. Having at least 64 MB of physical memory will avoid swapping of the [email protected] code and data to slow virtual memory when running [email protected] together with other software.

  1. Operating system

Some operating systems are more efficient than others. For example, a processor will be slightly more efficient under Windows NT than under Windows 95/98. Also, more efficient [email protected] clients exist for certain operating systems. For example, there is a Linux text client optimized for 686-class machines, but the Windows clients are optimized only for 386-class machines.

You can use the values in the table to determine if your [email protected] client is running at optimal efficiency. If your cycles / FLOP value is much higher than value in the table for your processor, you can probably improve your processing efficiency by using some of the tips in this FAQ.

You can also use the values in the table to estimate the optimal work unit processing time for your processor, using the following equation:

Topt = 555 (CpF / MHz )

where

Topt = Optimal WU processing time (hours) CpF = Cycles per FLOP (from table)
MHz = processor speed in MHz

For example, a 350 MHz Pentium II is expected to process one work unit in 555 (8.0 / 350) = 12.69 hours.

2.2 I’m using a proxy server, and i can’t connect – what do i do?

You try again. Make sure the proxy is on port 80, as previous versions of [email protected] had problems with this(alternatively upgrade to the newest version). Also there could be a problem, if you are using a proxy server, that requires authenthication, as [email protected] is not equipped to handle password-protected proxys..There’s tools that can go inbetween your proxy and your computer, and add password authenthication. On of them is “Proxomitron”, it’s a Windows util

2.3 I had a work unit get returned after only 5 minutes What’s wrong?

The [email protected] program found enough noise that it determined the packet was messed up with it. It’s like if you’re trying to hear an egg being dropped to the ground on the other end of a football field, and someone blares a megaphone in your ear. No point in continuing to listen for the egg. Don’t worry, you still get “credit” for the work unit.

2.4 I heard I was getting the same work unit as everyone else. Is the program wasting my time?

Nope, because the only time you’re giving it is time your computer would have wasted anyway. Yes, early in the program there were times when the same work units went out over and over, due to overloading of the [email protected] servers that were supposed to be making new ones to send out. (They didn’t expect half a million people to sign up, and they don’t have enough staff or computing power to keep up with it.) And since then, the same work units are still sent out to several people, for various reasons (for instance, more than half the people who signed up have never returned their work units, and probably dropped out) But new work units are being sent out too, so just leave your [email protected] program working and it’ll take care of the details.

Note:
If workunits are sent out multiple times, they can be doublechecked by [email protected], which is helpful in these Olli days.

2.5 My computer wanted to upload to the [email protected] server but said it couldn’t connect or reported error 10065. Are they still there?

Yes But they’re sometimes swamped with traffic. Just try again later. Error 10065 is a winsock error – means the same.

2.6 What if someone fakes a result to make it seem like they found a signal?

The [email protected] staff will be reviewing the actual data that produced the result, and if they don’t find the same results, they will discard the fake. Besides, while it’s not impossible, it might be harder than you think to fake a result file.

2.7 [email protected] keeps getting a ‘file opened in state.txt’ error. What can I do?

If you are running Windows, it is *probably* caused by interaction with ‘findfast’ (that is a utility program created by Microsoft. It appears to kick off every few hours, lock up a bunch of files while it indexes them for ‘find’, and then goes to sleep for a while. If [email protected] tries to write to a file while findfast has it locked, you get the error).

There are two things that you can do:

(Please back up your registry first before doing any changes.)

Win 98:
Easy – type msconfig at the run box then go to start up options to remove. And any thing that is removed can be re-installed just by placing the check mark back (You can get to it from sytem tools/system information/tools.) Really its not just findfast though. Too many programs insist on loading at startup.

Win 95:
Check and delete items in the registry in the runonce and run section. Before working with the registry a a back up should be made.

  1. From the start menu click on “run” then type “regedit” then click on OK.
  2. Click on the + sign by HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE to expand it.
  3. Click on the + sign by SOFTWARE to expand it.
  4. Click on the + sign by MICROSOFT to expand it.
  5. Click on the + sign by Windows to expand it.
  6. Click on the + sign by CurrentVersion to expand it.
  7. Look for Run, Runonce, and Runservices. When you click on these you can see what is being loaded by the registry.
  8. If you right click on the right hand side under name (Remember the file name you wrote down earlier when you used control-alt-delete to find what was running. Also any other information such as which one it was in.) you can chose “delete” to remove it.
  1. Close regedit then reboot your computer.

Alternatively, you can run “push the freakin’ button”. This doesn’t fix the problem, but it is a good work-around so you don’t lose too much time if it happens. It is a freeware program, and it can befound at:
http://www.bobos.demon.co.uk/par/PTFB.htm.

2.8 [email protected] keeps getting a ‘Bad Header’ error. What can I do?

1st Possibility
First close the [email protected] client Open the work_unit.txt file in the [email protected] directory and delete all the lines that appear before the ‘type=work unit’ line, but do not delete this line Save the work unit file then restart the [email protected] client.

2nd Possibility
If you installed the client software from the FreeBSD ports collection, install the highest numbered version available from: http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/unix.html If you then get an error with ld.so, go to /usr/src/lib/compat and make, make install compat22.

3rd Possibility

There’s a problem at Berkeley with the servers. Try again later. If you look closely at the GUI client while it returns, you might or not might see “all data sent”. If that happens, then the results were sent back allright. If you did not see that, then you can try to use the following to get a new workunit.

Close [email protected] Make sure it is closed, right click the icon in the systray and exit the client.

Go to the [email protected] folder. Move the files “outfile.txt” and “result.txt” to a temporary folder.

Start [email protected] The client should get a new workunit. If this does not work and you get bad header again, then the problem is probably one of the other possibilities.

When you wan’t to try to send the results back again for the workunit that got the bad header error, then:

Exit the client.

Move the text files “work_unit.txt”, “result_header.txt”, “outfile.txt” and “state.txt” to another temporary folder. Move back the files from the first temporary folders.

Start notepad, select save as, move to the [email protected] folder (usually c:\program files\[email protected]), save the file as “stop_after_send.txt”. Start [email protected] The results should be sent now. Exit [email protected] and delete the files “result.txt”, “outfile.txt” and “stop_after_send.txt”. You can now move back the files you moved to the temporary folder.

If you are unsure which files should be moved away, then move all the text files.

2.9 Suddenly, without warning my system crashes – what should i do?

Make sure you have the latest video (try first) and peripheral drivers for your system. This is often the cause of lockups and crashes, at least for Win9x.

If your machine suddenly reboots itself or you get a blue screen, then it could be that the processor or some other part of your computer is overheating. Check that you have enough cooling for your processor. Most new computers have built in sensors for measuring the temperature of various parts in your computer.

2.10 I can’t see the new WUs i’ve processed in the status area. Have they been registered at [email protected]?

Probably. Sometimes you first get Stats at next WU.

2.11 I want to run the text-client as a service in NT – how do i do that?

You need to be administrator to do it The easiest way is if you have IE4 or IE5 and Task Scheduler It comes with IE5 and is an option in IE4. Set up a task to run when your PC boots to launch it. When you boot your PC, let it sit at the logon screen for 30 seconds or so to verify the Task Scheduler service has started and it has launched the task. Now it will run in the background and the only way to stop it is with kill.exe from the NT resource kit.

If you don’t have IE4/5, then use the Schedule Service built into NT, but you have to be an administrator to do this. Make sure it is set to run and log on as you. Then schedule it to run in about 2 minutes using the AT command. Type AT /? from a command prompt for help. You do NOT want to use the /interactive switch. It will then run in the background. This is easier to use if you have the Resource Kit as well because you could use the SOON.EXE command in a batch file in your startup group.

2.12 Can i run the client invisibly on Win95/98?

Install and setup the client in the normal way. After you have completed the setup of the client making sure that it is running all of the time and not just in screen saver mode. Run regedit and search for [email protected] It will probably be in there more than once, so the one you are looking for looks like this:

seticlient C:\Program Files\[email protected]\[email protected] -min

This string value will be in the key Run. Move it to the RunServices Key and remove it from the Run key Restart and the next time it comes up it will run even before you log in with no icon visible.

2.13 Sometimes the size of the workunit.txt file differs in size. Sometimes it’s 340, sometimes 341, and yet other times 351. Is there something wrong?

The difference between 340k and 341k is most likely a difference in the number of telescope position strings reported in the header. The 351k is an benign bug in the portion of the splitter which determines where the work unit ends. It basically tags on an extra 10.67k (IIRC) of data, that the [email protected] client ignores. It has to do with the timing relationship between position information from the telescope and the start of a block on the tape. All of the data in the work unit is still OK.

2.14 I don’t have a permanent Internet connection, and have to pay for all my phone calls and net usage. Can I run [email protected] without going bankrupt?

[email protected] will only connect to the Internet when you want it to. The GUI (slow, pretty graphics) clients have an option under “Preferences” to “Ask me before connecting to the Internet”, and the CL (fast, no graphics) clients have a switch “-stop_after_process”. In each case, this will prevent an internet connection being made until you’re ready, and means the clients can be left safely unattended. When you are ready to connect to the Internet (say, for a normal browsing, usenet or mail session) you can make the client send results and retrieve a new Work Unit. In the GUI case, it will ask you to make a connection. For the CL client, stop the process, then restart it without the “-stop” switch, and it will connect automatically. Depending on the load at the Berkeley servers, within 5 minutes you will have sent your results and received new work to do.

There has also been developed programs, that will buffer the WU’s for you, but you ned to run the CLI version to do this. Look at SETIBuf from Terry Lee under 3.7.

If you are still concerned that the clients will connect when you don’t expect, make sure your system is configured *not* to connect “on demand” without prompting you for confirmation (a good idea anyway if you are concerned about unwanted connections), switch off your (external) modem, or pull the telephone socket from the wall (internal modem).

2.15 I already run the distributed.net RC5-64 client. Can I run [email protected] as well, or do I have to choose which project to support?

Both clients can run simultaneously. In screen-saver mode the [email protected] client seems to take priority. For those that don’t allow the clients to connect automatically, the advantage is that the RC5-64 client can download multiple blocks to work on as opposed to [email protected]’s single work unit. This means that while the [email protected] client waits for you to connect next, the RC5-64 client can continue working on its own tasks.

2.16 What happened to the gaussian information display in the new Mac and Windows clients? Are the clients still looking for gaussians?

The clients are still looking for Gaussions, however rather than display information about gaussions all the time, in newer clients the information only appears if the client has found a gaussian strong enough to report back to them.

2.17 Can I run [email protected] 24/7 if I don’t have a permanent Internet connection?

There are a couple of ways of running multiple instances of [email protected] such that, if one instance finishes its Work Unit, another will take over, so making sure that your system is working flat out most of the time.

Under Windows 98/NT/2000 Command Line (non-graphic), and various *ix flavours, multiple clients in different directories may be “chained” to run consecutively by specifying the “-stop_after_process” switch for each. When one Work Unit is finished, that client will stop and another will take over. When all clients are done, an Internet connection can be made to send all results and receive new Work Units. The process may then be repeated.

Under *ix, using the “-nice” switch allows multiple clients in different directories to run concurrently. The one with the lowest “-nice” value will run preferentially. When it is done, the next lowest “-nice” will take over, and so on. When all clients are done, an Internet connection can be made to send all results and receive new Work Units. The process may then be repeated.

Under Win98/NT/2000 it is possible to run the CL and GUI clients simultaneously from different directories. The CL client take priority over the GUI client, so will finish first. Once the CL client is finished, the GUI client gets a look in, and will do its job.

(Also there is the possibility of using SETIBuf by Terry Lee. It is under 3.7 in this FAQ)

Under Win95 and MacOS, it is advisable to run only one client at a time. Since the only available client is the GUI one, and there is no easy way of adjusting priorities in a meaningful way, multiple clients will simply fight for CPU time, and the whole process will run far more slowly than if each Work Unit were processed separately.

2.18 Is this bad for my processor, or my harddrive?

Most technicians agree that turning the computer on and off is worse for the lifespan of the parts inside, than leaving it running. Of course most computers are obsolete long before the processor gives out, even when it’s being run all the time. Your processor might get a little warmer, but not dangerously so, except if it has already been overclocked.

2.19 Does it use up a lot of electricity? Is this costing me money, or doing damage to the environment?

Many [email protected] users would have been leaving the computer on anyway. For some computers, starting it up uses as much electricity as running it for a while anyway. With the monitor turned off, the average computer uses less electricity than a box fan, more along the same lines as a bright light bulb. Even less for laptops. Odds are running [email protected] all night while you are sleeping costs you a few pennies a day at most, and probably less. The millions of people whose computers are on to run this, who wouldn’t have had them on otherwise, are adding a tiny fraction of a percent to the energy usage of the world — not enough to have a measurable environmental impact. But turn that monitor off, when you’re not using it. It probably uses more electricity than the rest of the system put together. The harddrive is not likely to take any damage either, as the [email protected] software only accesses the HD every 20 seconds.

2.20 How can I keep appraised of what’s going on lately?

Read the [email protected] web site at http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/ and especially http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/tech_news.html where news about the software is posted. Also you should check out the links at the bottom.

Alt.sci.seti and sci.astro.seti are also good newsgroups to read since members from the [email protected] team posts there quite often.

Search for posts made by “Erik J. Korpela”, as he is the local [email protected] “liason”.

3 Third Party Software

3.1 JSETITracker

By James Birchfield

3.1.1 Programmers comments

JSETITracker is an add-on client for the [email protected] project software. It provides a vast array of information that is either not found in the [email protected] software, or is hard to find. JSETITracker, in addition, provides logging of all work units, and two different visualization methods to view your data. The first and simplest is the SkyMap. The SkyMap plots each work unit against a whole sky map to show you where your work units have come from. Each work unit shown is selectable and information about each is readily available with the click of a mouse. The second is a JSETITracker exclusive, CoordinateTracker. CoordinateTracker requests the detailed image of the area of sky that the work unit was recorded from SkyView, a NASA website. The image is then placed on the CoordinateTracker panel, and the work unit’s coordinates are plotted on top of this image. This provides the user with a detailed path that the work unit followed as the receiver traveled along the sky. As the work unit processing progresses, a small square travels along the plotted line to indicate which part of the sky the current processing is currently looking at. The user may also at anytime choose anyone of the 20 or so coordinates and view their location in the sky with a different square.

JSETITracker is written entirely in Java, and requires Java 1.1.6 or higher, as well as JFC(Swing) 1.1 or higher. JSETITracker acts as a passive monitor to the ‘state’ files that the [email protected] software produces. It polls these files on a set interval and updates the display accordingly.

JSETITracker has ben known to run successfully on a variety of Java enabled platforms including: Windows 95/98/NT, Linux, Solaris, OS/2, and Macintosh. JSETITracker should work on any other Java enabled platform as well.

JSETITracker is deployed using Zero G’s InstallAnywhereNow product. There are are platform specific installers for Windows 95/98/NT, Macintosh, and Unix. There is also an ‘other’ installer for any other Java enabled platform. JSETITracker is also distributed as a single zip file that contains all the files necessary to run JSETITracker, including the JSETITracker .jar file and all associated images.

JSETITracker is free to use by anyone.

Get it: http://zap.to/jsetitracker

3.2 [email protected]

By Rick Macdonald

3.2.1 Programmers comments

TkSETI is a GUI front-end to the [email protected] client for UNIX. It is fully customizable with lots of cool features:

Can passively monitor an already running SETIathome client. Can start/stop/pause the SETIathome client when TkSETI starts/exits.
Can manually run/kill/pause/continue the SETIathome client. Can automatically stop the client during certain hours on certain days.
Can run your dialup network start/stop scripts when the client needs to contact the server (even avoiding certain days and times).
Restarts the client if it dies unexpectedly. Linux only: can automatically run/kill/pause/continue the SETIathome client based on system idleness by monitoring any devices such as keyboard, mouse, etc. Support for proxy servers.
Tracks your personal best scores for big Spikes and Gaussians, and notifies you when new bigger ones are found. Displays your statistics such as work units processed, total CPU time, progress of current work unit, largest Spike and Gaussian, client CPU usage, etc.
SkyMap shows the location of all work units processed plus the location of your best spike and gaussian. Fully configurable to run on any UNIX platform. Font selector.
Lets you check the work statistics of your friends to see who is ahead.
Notifies you if you or your friends make the Top Users, Spikes or Gaussians lists.
Notifies you when a new version of TkSETI is available.

Contact Rick Macdonald <[email protected]> with any problems or enhancements ideas.

TkSETI checks after every work unit for updates and notifies you when a new version is available. A window is popped up and also a message is placed in the TkSETI window manager title bar.

The latest version is available from

http://www.cuug.ab.ca/~macdonal/tkseti

3.2.2 [email protected] Installation

Untar the distribution file:
gunzip -qc tkseti-1.38.tar.gz | tar xvf – and just place the tkseti file anywhere in your path. There is a “contrib” directory where various scripts and information has been contributed by TkSETI users.

TkSETI requires Tcl/Tk 8.0 or newer.

See http://www.scriptics.com/download

3.2.3 [email protected] Startup

You must run the SETIathome client once manually from the command line to get registered. Just answer all the prompts. Once the client is running properly, you can run tkseti.

TkSETI can be started if the client is already running, or it can start the client manually or automatically for you. This is explained in the Setup section that follows.

TkSETI will look for the client files in the directory ~/setiathome. If you’ve run the client elsewhere, or run more than one client, just specify the setiathome client directory on the tkseti command line. For example:

tkseti ~/setiathome

3.3 SETI Spy

By Roelof Engelbrecht

3.3.1 Programmers comments

SETI Spy is a little program I wrote to “spy” on the progress and performance of the [email protected] client. I initially developed it for my own use, but I have decided to make it available to the general public free of charge.

The graphical [email protected] client displays the progress and status of the analysis, but generating the graphics uses 60% or more of the available computing power. Some folks, including myself, would much rather use all of the available power to crunch data quicker than look at the pretty pictures. Enter a new type of software — the [email protected] tracker — that displays that progress an status of the analysis without having to generating the time-consuming graphics. There are some good [email protected] trackers available, but I wanted something to display the information I
am interested in — the progress and especially the performance of the [email protected] client. This is why I wrote SETI Spy.

You can get SETI Spy at <http://pages.tca.net/roelof/setispy/>

3.3.2 Processing Efficiency

I developed SETI Spy to provide a tool that can be used to ensure that you are running your [email protected] client at peak efficiency. For benchmarking purposes I developed the following table of peak efficiencies from work unit speeds I measured and those reported on various news groups, bulletin boards, and web sites.

Processor Peak Efficiency

       (cycles / FLOP)
       AMD K6                              10.0
       AMD K6-2                            11.0
       AMD K6-III                          10.5
       AMD Athlon                           8.5
       Intel 80486DX2                      18.0
       Intel Pentium                       12.0
       Intel Pentium MMX                    9.5
       Intel Pentium Pro                    8.5
       Intel Celeron                        8.5
       Intel Pentium II/III                 8.0
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (512kB L2) 7.5
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (1MB L2)   5.5
       Intel Pentium II/III Xeon (2MB L2)   5.0
       Sun Enterprise 4000                  5.0
       Sun Ultra 60                         5.2
       PowerMac G3                          6.5
       PowerMac G4                          4.5

The peak efficiency of your processor depends on a number of factors, including:

  1. Floating Point Unit design

Since most of the processing is done on floating point numbers, a very efficient Floating Point Unit (FPU) is essential for good performance. The Intel Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II/III (Xeon), and AMD Athlon have pipelined FPUs which are more efficient than the non-pipelined FPUs of the other processors.

  1. Cache size and cache speed

The most time-consuming part of [email protected] is the FFT routine which accesses a data set slightly larger than 512kB. Performance is much improved if this data set fits entirely in the L2 cache of the processor, as is the case for the 1MB and 2MB Pentium II/III Xeons. In addition, the fast L2 cache like that of the Pentium II/III Xeon improves performance even more.

  1. Memory size and speed

[email protected] requires about 16 MB of memory. The quicker it can access this memory, the faster it will run. Low latency memory will reduce the access time and speed up processing. Having at least 64 MB of physical memory will avoid swapping of the [email protected] code and data to slow virtual memory when running [email protected] together with other software.

  1. Operating system

Some operating systems are more efficient than others. For example, a processor will be slightly more efficient under Windows NT than under Windows 95/98. Also, more efficient [email protected] clients exist for certain operating systems. For example, there is a Linux text client optimized for 686-class machines, but the Windows clients are optimized only for 386-class machines.

You can use the values in the table to determine if your [email protected] client is running at optimal efficiency. If your cycles / FLOP value is much higher than value in the table for your processor, you can probably improve your processing efficiency by using some of the tips in this FAQ.

You can also use the values in the table to estimate the optimal work unit processing time for your processor, using the following equation:

Topt = 555 (CpF / MHz )

where

Topt = Optimal WU processing time (hours) CpF = Cycles per FLOP (from table)
MHz = processor speed in MHz

For example, a 350 MHz Pentium II is expected to process one work unit in 555 (8.0 / 350) = 12.69 hours.

3.4 SETIWatch

By Mark Loukko

3.4.1 What is SETIWatch?

After using [email protected] for the last few months, I recently downloaded the command line version for NT. While the command line version is running it just displays the percentage completed. I wanted to know a little bit more, so I wrote a program called SETIWatch. It turns out if you’re using the screen saver version of [email protected] you can also benefit from SETIWatch. SETIWatch has been tested on Windows NT and 98.

3.4.2 Some Background

On June 28, 1999 I released SETIWatch to the general public. Well, all I can say is WOW, I’ve been completely blown away by the response. So many people have sent me their complements and enhancement requests I’ve had a hard time keeping up. I’ve done my best to complete as many of the requests as I can. Unfortunately I do have a full time job and some enhancements will have to wait.

3.4.3 Where can i get it?

Download it from this homepage:
http://members.home.net/mloukko/

3.4.4 How to Install SETIWatch:

Place SETIWatch.exe into the same directory as [email protected] and run it.

3.5 Setilog

By Mark Luokko

3.5.1 What is SETILog?

Many people have ask me to include a way to record completed work units in SETIWatch. This task turned out to be a lot harder than I thought it would. I wanted a method that works every time, even when SETIWatch is not running. It turned out SETIWatch is not the place to capture completed work units. Instead, I developed a small (8k) program called SETILog.

3.5.2 How does SETILog work?

The key to capturing a completed work unit is to run the command line version of [email protected] in a batch file. First [email protected] runs and then SETILog. This way we guarantee when a work unit completes we also log the results.

When the work unit completes and SETILog runs, it grabs information about the work unit and places it into a csv (comma separated values) file called SETILog.csv. SETIWatch can read this file and displays the results in the “Completed Work Units” window. This csv file can even be loaded into Microsoft Excel, Access etc where you can do your own analysis if desired.

3.5.3 RunSETI.bat

RunSETI.bat looks like this:
:Start
seti.exe -stop_after_process
if exist result.txt goto SaveLog
if errorlevel -1073741510 goto Stop goto Start

:SaveLog
if errorlevel 0 SETILog.exe
goto Start

:Stop

A couple of points regarding the batch file:

  1. Wondering what -1073741510 is for? Windows returns this number when Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Break is pressed.
  2. The file name for the command line version of [email protected] is quite long. Version 1.3 is “setiathome-1.3.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe” I find this a little tedious to type at the best of times! I’ve renamed my file to seti.exe This is what the above batch file refers to.

3.5.4 Where can i get it?

Download it from this homepage:
http://members.home.net/mloukko/

3.5.5 How to Install SETILog

Step 1. UnZip SETILog.zip into the same directory as [email protected]. Step 2. Run the batch file!

3.6 SetiTEAM

By Sqiz

3.6.1 Description

SetiTEAM is a free program for Windows 95/98/NT downloadable from http://www.lakeside.force9.co.uk/Seti/SetiTEAM.html. It requires no special installation and can use standard internet connections or access via a proxy server.

SetiTEAM allows the team statistics webpage for a [email protected] group to be sorted (by Position, Name, WU’s, Total time, or Average time), saved (in Word, Excel, HTML, Notepad, CSV or Clipboard formats), printed, or viewed as bar charts.

Since SetiTEAM remembers the previous session it can be used off-line as an aide memoir. The latest version (1.3d) allows the creator of a team to list the entire membership along with all the Email addresses.

3.7 SETIBuf

By Terry Lee

3.7.1 Legal notice and stuff

SETIBuf is a set of *.bat files and instructions, created by Terry Lee. They are offered on an as-is basis without charge, and may be freely redistributed as long as the integrity of the installation package is preserved If you wish to distribute SETIBuf with modifications, please include the unaltered SETIBuf.zip file along with your modifications in your own package, and call it anything other than SETIBuf.

The batch files provided rely on SETIWatch and SETILog from Mark Loukko (because they are such nice tools!) However, instructions for doing the work unit buffering without using these programs are part of the SETIBuf.doc document.

IMPORTANT:
The SETIAtHome command-line client will not run on Windows 95. You must be running Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, or Windows 2000 in order to use the command-line client or this procedure If you are running Windows 95 and do not wish to upgrade, then you can use only the SETIAtHome GUI (screen-saver) version.

3.7.2 General Description

One Work Unit (WU) is kept in each of the active 1 thru 9 folders.

To keep one of the 1 through 9 folders from participating in the Work Unit cycle, rename the SETI.ok file it contains to SETI.no. To reactivate such a deactivated folder, rename the SETI.no file to SETI.ok. The original distribution files have folders 1 thru 9 activated; if upgrading or reinstalling, this scheme retains the settings you currently have. By renaming the SETI.ok/SETI.no files in those folders according to the above scheme, you can control the size of your work unit buffer. WU sending/downloading/ processing will only be performed if there is a SETI.ok file present and there is not a SETI.no file present.

To stop a running SETI instance at any time:

Restore the window if it is minimized Type CTRL+C
Reply Y to the �Terminate batch job (Y/N)?� prompt

To stop processing on one WU and move on to the next WU directory:

Restore the window if it is minimized Type CTRL+C
Reply N to the �Terminate batch job (Y/N)?� prompt

When you try to reboot a Win98 computer with a SETI instance running, you will get a message box advising you that Windows cannot stop the process. Proceed as follows:

Press the OK button. The SETI window will restore if it is minimized
Type CTRL+C
Reply Y to the �Terminate batch job (Y/N)?� prompt

Whenever SETI.bat is started, it first checks all the activated buffers, sending in any completed Work Units and replacing any sent in with new ones, and filling any empty buffers. After all the activated buffers have been filled, it then begins processing at the point where processing was last interrupted. If no process was interrupted, it begins with the lowest-numbered active folder. Whenever a WU is completed, all the activated buffers are checked again, and refilled as required. Following the buffer filling, the WU processing resumes with the WU in the next activated folder. This way, the maximum number of work units will always be available.

The AutoDial.ok file is a signal to SETI.bat that it should attempt to connect to SETIAtHome automatically when one or more of the WU buffers requires attention. You can suppress this automatic connection by renaming it to AutoDial.no. Automatic connection will be attempted if, and only if, both of the following conditionsare True:

AutoDial.ok does exist in the SETI folder AutoDial.no does not exist in the SETI folder

If you disable automatic connection by deleting the AutoDial.ok file, instead of by the methods described above, then automatic connection attempts will be resumed by SETI.bat if you should ever upgrade or reinstall SETIBuf.

If you have suppressed automatic connection with AutoDial.ok/ AutoDial.no, or if some of the automatic upload/download attempts have failed, you can try again without interruption of WU processing by invoking SETICall. SETICall attempts to connect to SETIAtHome regardless of the AutoDial.ok/no settings.

Additional processing scenarios are supported. See SETIBuf.doc for details.

Multiple concurrent Work Units (for machines with multiple processors) are supported by SETIBuf Full instructions are included in SETIBuf.doc.

3.7.3 Where can I get it?

SETIBuf is available from:
http://www.hallquist.net/SETI/SETIBuf.htm

4 Homepages

Dale’s “Star Rating”
“0” = The Pits. Don’t even bother going there.
* = If you don’t have anything to do, well… maybe.
** = Interesting, but has room for improvement.
*** = Very nice site. Interesting, Informative, Could be spruced up a bit.
**** = Cool site. I was impressed. Go There. Be informed and pleased.
***** = Way To Do A Site! I’m Impressed! GO HERE!

4.1 Homepages concerning [email protected]

4.1.1 [email protected] home

http://www.setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/

This is the home-base of operations for the [email protected] scientific project. It’s the official place where you can download the latest version of the processing client software, but it also has many interesting areas that are well worth checking out. Perhaps one of the more interesting aspects of the [email protected] Web site, is the “News and Statistics” sections. Here you can find some really interesting information presented in graphical form, concerning how many new volunteers are joining the search for ETI each day; The total so far, of work units processed by groups and individual volunteers; The top 20 “spikes” and “Gaussians” found so far; Graphs and Maps; an updated report on things relating to the project from storm threats, to hardware upgrades. You can even take the “SETI at Home Poll” and give your reasons for joining the search for ETI and also some of what your own opinions and thoughts might be about “ET”!

As far as “looks” are concerned, it’s a little “dark”, but hey — these guys are “Scientists”, and not necessarily polished at making a Web site look really, really cool! But then again, I’m glad they know what they’re doing in searching for ET instead of great at putting those lame “flames” all over the place, aren’t you?

One other mention that I’d like to make, is that near the bottom of the Front page, you’ll find a listing of those companies that have made some substantial donations to the [email protected] Project. If you can find the time, it wouldn’t do any harm to log onto those donating companies and leave a message telling them that you appreciate the help they’ve given to this project. Though there are no strings attached to these donations they have given, any business likes to know that they are appreciated and this is a great way to show them. Too, you will also find there, a place where YOU can also make a donation to [email protected]. While they certainly appreciate everybody helping them process their collected data from the Aricebo Dish Antenna, they really need some money to help buy more equipment. So, if you could spare what it costs to go to a movie once, it would make quite a difference.

4.1.2 SETIweb

http://www.setiweb.org/

Hosts the sci.astro.seti pages, where links can be submitted, and binaries can be posted, as the s.a.s. group do not permit binaries.

Here it is: http://setiweb.org/sas/ – Stan Schonberg is the editor of these pages.

4.1.3 SETIforum

http://www.datania.com/seti/

4.1.4 SETI @ SixDegrees

http://www.geocities.com/~kris_j/seti/index.html

4.1.5 [email protected] Speedup Tips

http://www3.sympatico.ca/n.rieck/docs/seti_tips.html

4.1.6 Derived statistics for [email protected] @ Rovingmouse

http://www.roving-mouse.com/setiathome/

4.1.7 SETI STATION

http://www.flex.com/~daniel/SETI/

Dale’s Rating: **

If you’ve got a MAC computer, check this site out. If you loose the pointer to it, just go to the [email protected] site and go to “Related Web Sites” and it’ll be on the top of the list. Just “click” and you’re there. It’s even been rated as “Internet Site of The Month” by My Mac Magazine – Sept. 1999.

It’s got some “fun things” at SETI Station, as well as some serious stuff too, like learning how to speed up your MAC client processing by using RAM disk. There is even a Poll available to let them know what kind of MAC you’re running. There’s Tips, Teams, Winners & Loosers, and articles taken from various sources.

Though the site is a bit “dark”, it is useful and informative. I didn’t care too much for the pull-down windows, but to each his own.

4.1.8 SETI: The Drake Equation

http://www.activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/SETI/drake_equation.html

4.1.9 Sci.astro FAQ about SETI

http://sciastro.astronomy.net/sci.astro.6.FAQ

4.2 SETI utilities

4.2.1 SETIwatch & SETIlog

http://members.home.net/mloukko/

4.2.3 [email protected]

http://www.cuug.ab.ca/~macdonal/tkseti

4.2.4 SETISPY

http://pages.tca.net/roelof/setispy/

4.2.5 JSETITracker

http://zap.to/jsetitracker

4.2.6 SetiTEAM Homepage

http://www.lakeside.force9.co.uk/Seti/

4.2.7 SETIBuf homepage

http://www.hallquist.net/SETI/SETIBuf.htm

5 Acknowledgements

5.1 Sci.astro FAQ

From the sci.astro FAQ i have used section 1.2.2 and 1.2.3, and have hereby agreed to bring this copyright statement:

       Subject: Copyright

This document, as a collection, is Copyright 1995, 1996, 1997 by Joseph W. Lazio ([email protected]). The individual articles are copyright by the individual authors listed. All rights are reserved. Permission to use, copy and distribute this unmodified document by any means and for any purpose EXCEPT PROFIT PURPOSES is hereby granted, provided that both the above Copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies of the FAQ itself. Reproducing this FAQ by any means, included, but not limited to, printing, copying existing prints, publishing by electronic or other means, implies full agreement to the above non-profit-use clause, unless upon prior written permission of the authors.

This FAQ is provided by the authors “as is”, with all its faults. Any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability, accuracy, or fitness for any particular purpose, are disclaimed. If you use the information in this document, in any way, you do so at your own risk.